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section euro DNL Terminales

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  • documents sur mondialisation et américanisation

    4
    Par JEAN-YVES BOU, publié le mercredi 25 septembre 2013 23:19 - Mis à jour le mercredi 25 septembre 2013 23:19
  • la photo de fin d'année 2012-2013

    1
    Par JEAN-YVES BOU, publié le vendredi 7 juin 2013 16:00 - Mis à jour le jeudi 5 septembre 2013 21:38
  • The US Mexico border

    Par JEAN-YVES BOU, publié le vendredi 7 juin 2013 15:57 - Mis à jour le vendredi 7 juin 2013 15:57

     

    The US-Mexico border

    Plan of the lesson

     

    Ideas for an introduction :

    A 3200 km long border between 2 countries that are very different in terms of wealth and development.

    To the North, the developed and powerful USA. To the South, the developing or emerging Mexico = this border is part of the North/South divide (or development gap ; GDP, HDI).

    Between them a natural border, with the Rio Grande and arid deserts.

    However, many immigrants? cross the borderline every day, but the human migrations are strictly controlled by the US authorities.

     

    In our present globalized world, where borders are dynamic places of exchanges and activities, we can wonder whether the US-Mexico border should be considered as a barrier or a contact zone.

     

    What are the characteristics of the US-Mexico border ?

    What is at stake on the US-Mexico border ?

     

    If the title of the subject is more precise about the topic, adapt your introduction to the subject.

     

    2 outlines (or more) are possible :

    1 – a barrier (list of arguments, in a logical order, using the documents first and also what you personally know)

    2 – a contact zone (the same)

     

    OR

     

    1 – an open border for economic flows, with maquiladoras and twin cities

    2 – a border strictly controlled in terms of human flows

    3 – a place of cultural exchange

     

    In both cases, use information from the documents as much as possible, to show that you are using them as you are supposed to, but add whatever you think is worth mentioning even if it is not in the document.

     

    Development

     

    (general information : the border stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico ; it is 2000 miles or 3200 km long ; it was laid down in the middle of the 19th century, after a US-Mexico war and the acquisition of Texas and California by the US ; this area was inhabited and developed by Mexicans before that moment)

     

    1 – an open border for economic flows, with maquiladoras and twin cities

    * NAFTA agreements, signed in 1992, creating a common market between CND, US and Mexico : Free-Trade for goods, services and capitals, with more power to the TNCs (context of neoliberalism of the 1990s). It favoured exchanges.

    * US or Canadian TNCs could more easily relocate their plants on the Mexican side of the border, in the Free-Trade zones. They can also create new plants. Maquiladoras developed with Foreign Direct Investments ; about 3000 today, with 1.3 million workers. TNCs from the whole world (European, Japanese, Chinese, etc.) ; factories or assembly plants. Reasons of this activity : lower wages, proximity with the US market, no Trade-unionism; etc.

    * Twin-cities : double agglomerations have developed on both sides of the border. On the Mexican side because of maquiladoras, workers, services, shops the cities thus created are quite rich compared with other Mexican cities, but they also suffer from rampant violence. On the US side, the cities host diverse services (trade, logistics) . Examples : San Diego-Tijuana ; Nogales-Nogales ; El Paso-Ciudad Juarez ; Laredo- Nuevo Laredo ; Brownsville-Matamoros.

    * The number of maquiladoras and jobs increased dramatically during the 1990s ; in the 2000s, it remained stable, with periods of decrease (crisis). It has to face global competition, especially from East Asia, where some plants are relocated.

     

    2 – a border strictly controlled for human flows

    * The human flows are strictly controlled. But there are different situations : Americans can easily go to Mexico ; Mexicans should be documented ; some of them are commuters, crossing the border every day to go to work ; others can legally migrate ; but lot of Mexicans try to cross the border without documents.

    * Illegal migrants want to reach the US to get a job, a wage ; in agriculture (seasonal jobs), construction, factories or services.

    * To prevent the illegal immigration, the US government has developed a strict control along the border : the Border patrol, a specific police ; fences ; walls ; and high-tech equipments (sensors, cameras, etc.). But the smugglers (coyotes) always invent new ways to go round. Many migrants die in the US desert (Sonora desert), because of heat and lack of water.

     

    * In these last years, the number of illegal migrants has decreased, when the number of Mexicans returning to their homeland has increased. In 2010, both estimated numbers were quite the same (1.3 million). Among the reasons : less births in Mexico, more jobs and crisis in the US, deportation of Mexicans, a more efficient control (but it is debated)

     

    3 – a mix of cultures

    * Mexicans make up the first foreign community in the US : 1/3 of the foreign born persons, both legal and illegal. They are numerous in big cities but specially in the SW of the US, near the border (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas).

    * This creates a specific area called MEXAMERICA, where the Mexican culture is very present and melts with the American culture. The blended culture is called TEX-MEX culture (spanglish, food, music, arts, literature, sports, etc.). Even if the two communities are often separated (salad bowl, spatial segregation), there is also a mix of people. The US army is a kind of melting pot ; and politicians of both big parties try to seduce the Hispanic communities.

     

    Conclusion :

    The US-Mexico border is both a barrier (river, desert, fences and police) and a contact zone (goods, services, capitals, tourists, businessmen, culture), creating a very specific area with economic dynamism, original culture, violent social relationships and big political issue.

     

    It is worth reading on the net articles by Michael Dear, in the New York Times, like “Mr President, tear down this wall”, March 10, 2013.

  • Immigration, fichier récapitulatif

    1
    Publié le dimanche 26 mai 2013 19:03 - Mis à jour le dimanche 26 mai 2013 19:03

    Voici le fichier récapitulatif de Madame Guérin sur l'immigration aux Etats-Unis. Dans son mail, elle a spécifié que les cours polycopiés venaient completer ce fichier pour nous aider à faire nos fiches et à réviser. 

    Bonne fin de week end,

    Léa

  • Sujets de bac blanc sur la mondialisation

    9
    Par JEAN-YVES BOU, publié le mercredi 28 novembre 2012 23:04 - Mis à jour le mercredi 28 novembre 2012 23:04
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